The Need for Nutrients

We are not all alike. The needs for your particular lifestyle must be adequately covered, preferably through eating more of the appropriate kinds of foods. In cases where nutritional deficiencies are causing health problems, the use of nutritional supplements may also be helpful. For example, if you smoke and drink alcohol frequently your nutritional needs will be higher. If you are pregnant, if you live in a polluted environment, if you have a high stress occupation or are suffering emotional stress, if you suffer from allergies,

if you have any sort of disease, degenerative illness or inherited

weakness – all of these factors may increase your needs.

The poor nutritional quality

of many purchased foods is another factor. Depleted soils and

lengthy storage, as well as toxicity from pesticides, antibiotics,

additives, and so on can make an apparently healthy food of

little value. Tests have shown that, for example, most people

do not obtain adequate zinc, folic acid or the essential fatty

acids in their diet, and health (physical and mental) suffers

– the weakest link of the inter-acting bodily systems inevitably

gives way.

Deficiency of any of the essential nutrients (below

the RDA amount) will, over a period of time, result in illness.

Recent research has shown that most of the population in Western

countries is deficient in at least a few nutrients (the most

common being zinc, selenium, B and C vitamins) and literally

on the edge of illness.

Moreover, individual nutritional needs are frequently

higher than the RDA amounts, and to reverse the effects of decades

of poor diet and the resulting toxicity, yet alone to attain

optimum health, larger amounts are required – preferably as

part of an improved diet but if necessary, through supplements

as well.

An Optimum Nutrition Formula

Vitamins and minerals are essential for almost

every function of the body. They are vital for energy and they

protect you from premature ageing and degenerative diseases.

And because they work together they are best digested and absorbed

as natural and wholesome foods, in the context of a balanced

and varied diet, not just in isolation in the form of nutritional


Nevertheless, supplements can play a role to prevent

the risk of deficiencies occurring and to remedy health symptoms

caused by long-standing deficiencies due to inadequacies in

our diet – all too common with cultural bad eating habits and

over-processed foods.

If you are suffering from significant health problems,

it is also necessary to obtain personal professional guidance

for remedial therapy from a nutritional consultant, who will

work in liason with your doctor.

The question is, how much do you need of the various

vitamins and minerals? There’s a big difference between the

amount required to prevent deficiencies that would lead to serious

degeneration, and the amount of each vitamin and mineral you

need for optimum health. A few years ago, scientists at the

University of Alabama worked this out for every nutrient and

called the amounts Suggested Optimal Nutrient Allowances or

SONAs. The following formula is based on SONAs and gives the

amount of each essential vitamin and mineral that you need contained

in your diet for optimal health.

The formula provides:

Vitamin A 7500 i.u. – Retinol,

a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, derived from animal sources

such as dairy foods, fish liver oil, eggs and liver. Like other

fat-soluble vitamins, this form of vitamin A can build up in

the body tissues causing undesirable side effects if taken in

excessive amounts (much more than 7500 i.u. per day). Excess

should particularly be avoided by pregnant mothers or those

expecting to become pregnant. A good supply of vitamin A is

however essential for optimal functioning of the eyes, gums,

skin, the mucous lining of the nasal sinuses, respiratory and

digestive tracts. Also for bone development, production of sex

hormones and normal immunity.

Deficiency symptoms: mouth ulcers, poor night vision, acne,

frequent colds or infections, dry flaky skin, dandruff, thrush

or cystitis, diarrhoea.

Beta Carotene 2500 i.u. – Vegetable pre-cursor to vitamin A,

found in orange/red fruit and vegetables, that is not toxic

in larger amounts (it is converted in the body to vitamin A

only as and when required). As an antioxidant it helps prevent

cancer and premature ageing and protects the heart and arteries.

Vitamin D 300 i.u. – Ergocalciferol,

a fat-soluble vitamin derived from animal sources (fish, dairy,

eggs). Needed for the absorption, utilisation and retention

of calcium, normal sexual function, and calcification of bone

to maintain strong bones and teeth. Helps prevent loss of calcium

from urine. Made by the body when exposed to sunlight. Toxic

in excess (more than 1500 i.u. daily) as this may cause calcification

of the liver.

Deficiency symptoms: joint pain or stiffness, back ache, tooth

decay, muscle cramps, hair loss (in extreme: rickets in children,

osteoporosis in adults).

Vitamin E 150 i.u. – D-alpha

tocopherol is a fat-soluble antioxidant found in nuts, seeds

and vegetable oils which it helps to prevent becoming rancid,

just as it protects fats within the body from oxidation. ts

antioxidant properties help limit the damage to all body cells

caused by naturally present free oxygen radicals, and therefore

helps prevent cancer and ageing. Needed for maintenance of a

healthy heart and circulation, normal sexual function, proper

growth and repair of skin. Helps heal scar tissue, oxygenate

muscles and maintain immunity.

Deficiency symptoms: lack of sex drive, exhaustion after light

exercise, easy bruising, slow wound healing, varicose veins,

loss of muscle tone, infertility.

Vitamin K (not included) – Phylloquinone,

fat-soluble, required for blood clotting, is found in many vegetables,

dairy products and wholegrain cereals. It is also produced by

healthy intestinal bacteria, so it is rarely deficient except

in young infants (nursing mothers should eat cauliflower and


Vitamin C 300 mg – Ascorbic acid,

a water-soluble antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables.

Strengthens the immune system – fights infections. Makes collagen,

the inter-cellular glue, keeping bones, skin and joints firm

and strong and strengthening blood vessels. A powerful antioxidant,

helping to detoxify pollutants and protect against cancer and

heart disease. Helps make anti-stress hormones and needed for

metabolism. Helps the absorption of iron from food. Most animals

make the equivalent of several grams of vitamin C daily; however,

by a quirk of evolution, humans cannot produce their own, so

we really do need the benefit of further supplementation.

Deficiency symptoms: frequent colds, lack of energy, bleeding

or tender gums, easy bruising, nose bleeds, slow wound healing,

red pimples on skin (in extreme: scurvy).

Vitamin B1 37.5 mg – Thiamin,

a water-soluble vitamin, found in association with other B Complex

vitamins in wholemeal products, brown rice, many vegetables,

meat, nuts and dairy, is unstable and frequently destroyed by

cooking or by preservatives. B1 is needed for carbohydrate metabolism

and may be deficient in those on a high sugar diet. Helps maintain

appetite, normal functioning of the nervous system, eyes, hair,

heart and other muscles. Helps keep mucous membranes (digestive

lining, lungs, etc) healthy. It is needed for digestion, growth

and maintenance of muscle tone.

Deficiency symptoms: tender muscles, eye pains, irritability,

poor concentration, prickly legs, poor memory, fatigue, loss

of appetite, nausea, stomach pains, constipation, tingling hands,

rapid heart beat (in extreme: beriberi).

Vitamin B2 37.5 mg – Riboflavin,

a water-soluble B Complex vitamin found in vegetables, fish

and dairy, works particularly closely with vitamins B6 and B3

and selenium. It assists in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates

and fats and therefore is needed for energy. It plays a role

in cataract prevention and is needed for healthy mucous membranes,

skin, nails, hair and the absorption of iron. It is also a necessary

factor in healthy functioning of the nervous system and helps

to regulate body acidity. Requirement is increased with alcohol

or drug abuse, consumption of coffee, the contraceptive pill,

antibiotics and pregnancy. Unrequired B2 harmlessly colours

the urine yellow.

Deficiency symptoms: burning or gritty eyes, sensitivity to

bright lights, sore tongue, cataracts, dull or oily hair, eczema

or dermatitis, split nails, cracked lips.

Vitamin B3 75 mg – Niacin or

nicotinic acid, a water-soluble B Complex vitamin found in vegetables,

fish, dairy and unrefined cereals, has a vasodilatory effect

(felt as flushing of the skin) which helps take nutrients to

cells and remove toxins and also reduce stickiness of the blood.

(Niacinamide, another form of the vitamin, does not have this

beneficial effect). B3 is essential for energy production, normal

digestion, nerve function and the skin. Helps balance blood

sugar and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It is also

needed for the production of vital hormones such as cortisone,

oestrogen, progesterone and thyroxine. Deficiency can occur

with alcohol or drug abuse, or protein deficiency, and may,

in extreme cases, result in pellagra (dematitis, diarrhoea and


Deficiency symptoms: lack of energy, diarrhoea, insomnia, headaches

or migraines, poor memory, anxiety or tension, depression and

other psychological disorders, irritability, bleeding or tender

gums, acne, eczema/dermatitis.

Vitamin B5 75 mg – Pantothenic

acid, a water-soluble B Complex vitamin found in eggs, lentils,

unrefined grains and vegetables. B5 is essential in energy production

and the synthesis of hormones and blood cells. Known as the

‘Anti-Stress Vitamin’ it is needed to make the neurotransmitter

acetylcholine and therefore for proper brain activity and nerve

transmission. It is also needed by the adrenal glands to make

glucocorticoids, the anti-stress hormones, and along with glucosamine

has been found helpful in arthritis and relieving joint pains

and stiffness. Helps healing and counteracts allergy effects.

Maintains normal hair pigment.

Deficiency symptoms: muscle tremors or cramps, apathy, poor

concentration, burning feet or tender heels, nausea or vomiting,

lack of energy, exhaustion after light exercise, anxiety, teeth


Vitamin B6 75 mg – Pyrodoxine,

a water-soluble B Complex vitamin found in meat, fish, vegetables,

bananas, wholegrains, seeds and nuts, may be toxic in extreme

doses (above 1000 mg). Works with other B Complex vitamins,

zinc and magnesium. Required for the metabolism and synthesis

of proteins. Needed for making energy, utilizing essential fatty

acids, keeping levels of the female hormone oestrogen stable

(and therefore effective in preventing pre-menstrual tension).

Essential for efficient nerve transmission, protein digestion

and utilisation, making healthy red blood cells and antibodies.

Involved in the maintenance of the circulation, the skin, the

immune system and the production of chemicals in the brain which

govern mood, sleep patterns, etc. Helps absorption of B12 and

maintenance of fluid balance in the body.

Deficiency symptoms: infrequent dream recall, water retention,

tingling hands, depression or nervousness, irritability, muscle

tremors or cramps, lack of energy, flaky skin, anaemia, peripheral

neuritis, convulsions, lesions of the skin or mucous membranes.

Vitamin B12 15 micrograms – Cyanocobalamin,

a water-soluble B Complex vitamin found in fish, eggs, meat

and dairy produce which often works together with folic acid

in the body. Needed for making energy. Essential for the production

of red blood cells and is also needed to make DNA. Helps make

the myelin sheath that insulates nerve cells. Vegans and vegetarians

are susceptible to deficiency and other causes are: alcohol,

coffee, smoking, lack of calcium or iron, diabetes and liver

disease. In extreme may cause pernicious anaemia.

Deficiency symptoms: poor hair condition, eczema or dermatitis,

mouth over sensitive to hot or cold, irritability, anxiety or

tension, lack of energy, constipation, tender or sore muscles,

loss of muscle co-ordination, fatigue, sore tongue, drowsiness,

pale skin, menstrual problems.

Folic Acid 150 micrograms – Folic

acid is water-soluble, part of the B Complex group of vitamins,

found in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, eggs, organ

meats, wholegrains, seeds and nuts but often destroyed by overcooking.

Required for protein synthesis, works with B12 in the formation

of red blood cells and is also vital for rapidly dividing cells

and the developing foetus. It is needed to make RNA and DNA

and therefore essential for the repair and manufacture of all

cells. Needed for proper growth, brain activity, normal nervous

function. Recent research indicates that folic acid may play

a protective role against heart disease due to its ability to

lower homocysteine levels; along with B6 and B12 it reduces

the risk of heart attacks. It also helps to regulate histamine

levels in the body. As with B12, anaemia will result when folic

acid is low. 400 micrograms is needed prior to and during pregnancy

to prevent spina bifida or other neural tube defects. It is

adversely affected in the body by alcohol, coffee, coeliac disease,

oral contraceptives, stress, the taking of drugs and smoking.

Deficiency symptoms: eczema, cracked lips, premature grey hair,

anxiety or tension, poor memory, lack of energy, fatigue, breathlessness,

anaemia, poor appetite, stomach pains, depression.

Biotin 75 micrograms – Biotin,

a water-soluble co-enzyme which works with the B Complex vitamins,

is found in many vegetables, nuts, seeds, fish, milk, eggs.

Biotin is part of many enzyme systems and is involved in the

conversion of amino acids to protein. It is involved in the

production of energy from carbohydrates, fatty acid metabolism

and the conversion of folic acid to a biologically active form.

It helps maintain healthy skin and hair, good muscular tone

and a balanced hormonal system. Promotes healthy sweat glands,

nerve tissue and bone marrow. Antibiotics, excessive intake

of alcohol, coffee or raw eggs will inhibit dietary intake.

Deficiency symptoms: dry skin, greyish skin colour, poor hair

condition or hair loss, premature grey hair, leg cramps, tender

or sore muscles, poor appetite or nausea, eczema or dermatitis,


Choline 30 mg – Choline is a

constituent of the emulsifier lecithin, found in egg yolks,

meat organs, green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, soy beans,

and can be made in the body so strictly speaking it is not a

vitamin. It helps make acetylcholine and is therefore essential

for brain function. Necessary to help break down accumulating

fats. Reduces lactic acid build-up in muscles.

Deficiency symptoms: Poor memory, high blood pressure, excess

cholesterol, fatigue, degeneration of the liver.

Inositol 30 mg – Like choline,

a constituent of lecithin, needed for hair growth, healthy arteries,

normal fat and cholesterol metabolism.

Deficiency symptoms: eczema, high cholesterol, poor hair condition

or loss of hair.


Minerals are originally extracted from the soil

by plants. Like vitamins, they may be obtained directly from

plants or indirectly via meat. However they are frequently refined

out of foods and over-farmed soils may be deficient in trace

minerals. For this reason it is essential to eat organically

grown, unprocessed produce.

Calcium 500 mg (as citrate, phosphate and carbonate) – Calcium (found in dairy, fish, eggs, root vegetables, pulses,

nuts, wholegrains and water) is the most abundant mineral in

the body, of which 99 per cent is found in the bones and teeth.

The remaining 1 per cent circulates in the blood and has many

functions. The 800 mg daily requirement is needed for growth

and maintenance of bones and teeth, nerve transmission, regulation

of the heartbeat, and muscle contraction. It is needed for blood

clotting, for helping to maintain the right acidity in the bloodstream

and for insulin production. Absorption is increased by exercise

and adequate vitamin D status, and decreased with exposure to

lead, consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea and a lack of hydrochloric

acid in the stomach. Continued stress leads to calcium loss.

With hormonal changes, post-menopausal women are particularly

prone to osteoporosis (weak and porous bones) since the lack

of oestrogen negatively affects calcium absorption. Pregnant

and breast feeding women may also need extra calcium, accompanied

by magnesium.

Calcium deficiency symptoms: muscle

cramps, tremors or spasms, insomnia or nervousness, joint pain,

osteoarthritis, tooth decay, high blood pressure.

Magnesium 225 mg (as citrate, aspartate,

or other organic form) – Magnesium is present in green

leafy vegetables, peas, nuts, brown rice, wholemeal products,

seeds and some fruits (and therefore is more commonly deficient

than calcium). It is involved as a co-factor in most enzyme

reactions in the body and is necessary for the production of

energy. It works together and in balance with calcium in maintaining

bone density and in nerves and muscles. For bone integrity,

calcium needs to be balanced with magnesium, preferably 2:1.

Calcification of soft tissues can occur if there is a calcium/magnesium

imbalance. The two minerals also act together in the regulation

of blood pressure. A lack of magnesium is strongly associated

with cardiovascular disease. Shortage of magnesium can also

lead to loss of control over the relaxing and contriction of

muscles, as again, calcium and magnesium act in balance. Magnesium

may be lost through food processing and refining, and its absorption

reduced with a high-fat diet, so it is widely deficient among

those with a fast-food diet, and indeed, is deficient in most

Western people! Magnesium has been shown to be beneficial for

women with pre-menstrual cramps or sugar cravings, especially

when taken in conjunction with vitamin B6. Deficiency may also

arise with prolonged treatment with diuretics. It is a primary

cause of most ADD cases (along with Zinc deficiency) and other

types of learning disability and psychological disturbance.

Magnesium deficiency symptoms: Muscle

tremors or spasms, “restless leg syndrome”, chronic

weakness and exhaustion, insomnia or nervousness, high blood

pressure, headaches, irregular or rapid heartbeat, constipation,

excessive muscle tension, fits or convulsions, ADD and hyperactivity,

difficulty with mental concentration and memory, nausea, apathy,

depression, anorexia.

Potassium (not supplied) – Potassium

(found in fruits, vegetables and wholegrains) works in conjunction

with sodium in maintaining water balance and proper nerve and

muscle impulses. The more sodium is eaten the more potassium

is required and so a relative deficiency of potassium is widespread,

with the high amounts of salt in typical diets.

Potassium deficiency symptoms: vomiting,

abdominal bloating, muscular weakness, loss of appetite (more

likely to occur in those taking diuretic drugs, laxatives or

corticosteroids). This is not supplemented in this Formula because

of the large amounts required which are best obtained from dietary

sources. Magnesium-potassium-aspartate, however, is a particularly

effective combination in its ‘anti-fatigue’ and cholesterol

lowering effects.

Iron 15 mg (as citrate or other organic

form) – Iron (found in meat, eggs, nuts, beans, oatmeal)

is needed as part of the haemoglobin molecule to carry oxygen

around the bloodstream, and for the production of hydrochloric

acid for protein digestion in the stomach. A deficiency of iron

can result in anaemia. Those particularly at risk include pregnant

women, children, women with heavy menstruation and people with

malabsorption problems.

Iron deficiency symptoms: pale

skin, sore tongue, fatigue or listlessness, loss of appetite

or nausea, heavy periods or blood loss.

Zinc 15 mg (as citrate or other organic

form) – Zinc (found in meat, shellfish, herrings, wheat

germ, eggs, cheese, nuts, pumpkin and sunflower seeds) is needed

for normal functions of taste and smell, for insulin formation,

reproductive and immune systems, tissue renewal, and for healthy

bones, skin and teeth. It is essential (along with B6) for protein

synthesis including hormones, enzymes and antibodies. It is

needed for over 90 enzymatic processes in the body. High levels

are found in semen and a deficiency is linked to male infertility;

zinc is also necessary for a healthy prostate gland. Hydrochloric

acid, necessary for digestion of proteins and assimilation of

minerals, is dependent on zinc and B6 for its secretion by the

stomach. Zinc is vital for the growth and maintenance of the

nervous system; therefore it is important in brain function

and deficiency is linked to depression and anxiety, and it is

an important factor in schizophrenia.

Stress increases the need for zinc. With zinc

deficiency there is increased risk of having a baby with low

birth weight or premature. Women suffering from postnatal problems

frequently benefit from supplementing zinc and B6. It is especially

important to supplement because most zinc is lost in food processing

or never exists in substantial amount because of nutrient-poor

soil. Vegetarians and others on a high fibre diet may need more

zinc to offset the additional phytate present, which binds to

zinc and other minerals, making them less easily absorbed by

the body.

Zinc deficiency symptoms: poor

sense of taste or smell, white spots on the fingernails, frequent

infections, slow wound healing, stretch marks, acne, poor skin

condition, low fertility, pale skin, irritability, ADD, tendency

to depression and anxiety, poor digestion, loss of appetite,

impotence, prostate enlargement, growth problems.

Manganese 4.5 mg (as citrate or other

organic form) – Manganese (found in tropical fruits

nuts, seeds, wholegrains, green leafy vegetables, eggs) is associated

with iron metabolism and utilisation of vitamin E and B vitamins.

It has a critical role in the activation of over 20 enzymes

involved in growth, digestion and assimilation of nutrients,

the nervous system, healthy cartilage and bones, cell protection

against viruses, and making energy. Manganese is found in female

hormones and is required in the production of nucleic acids

that are part of the genetic code. Forms part of the important

antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase. Reduced fertility,

birth defects and growth retardation may, in part, be a result

of manganese deficiency.

Manganese deficiency symptoms: muscle twitches, joint pain, childhood growing pains, dizziness

or poor sense of balance, fits or convulsions, sore knees, fatigue,

nervous irritability, and in some cases: schizophrenia, Parkinson’s

disease and epilepsy.

Iodine 45 micrograms (as iodide) – Iodine (found in kelp, vegetables grown in iodine-rich soil,

onions and all seafood) is needed for thyroid hormones which

control metabolism.

Iodine deficiency symptoms: slow

mental reaction, weight gain, lack of energy.

Copper 75 micrograms (as citrate or other

organic form) – Copper (found in peas, beans, wholegrains,

liver, seafood) is essential for the utilization of Vitamin

C and is required to convert the body’s iron into haemoglobin.

Copper deficiency symptoms: anaemia,

edema, rheumatoid arthritis. In excess, copper lowers zinc levels

and produces hair loss, insomnia, irregular menstruation, depression

and schizophrenia. The balance of zinc and copper in the diet

should be 15:1.

Chromium 30 micrograms (as picolinate) – Chromium (found in liver and seafood, wholegrains,

mushrooms and asparagus) is part of the Glucose Tolerance Factor

(with B3 and amino acids) necessary for the regulation of blood

sugar levels. Chromium works with insulin for normal glucose

metabolism and conversion of amino acids into protein. Continued

stress or frequent sugar consumption depletes the body of chromium.

A diet high in refined carbohydrates can also lead to deficiency

as the food processing removes much of the natural chromium

content. Other causes of depletion include infection, strenuous

physical exercise and pregnancy. Deficiency is implicated in

adult onset of diabetes. Impaired glucose utilisation can promote

sugar conversion to fats and cholesterol leading to obesity

and arteriosclerosis.

Deficiency symptoms: excessive

or cold sweats, dizziness or irritability after 6 hours without

food (hypoglaecemia), need for frequent meals, cold hands, need

for excessive sleep or drowsiness during the day, excessive

thirst, addiction to sweet foods.

Selenium 45 micrograms (as selenomethionine) – Selenium (found in seafoods, liver and kidney and

in small amounts in other meats, grains and seeds) helps maintain

a healthy heart, eyes, liver, skin and hair. Part of the important

antioxidant enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase, giving the body protection

against cancer, premature ageing and degenerative diseases.

Needed for prostaglandin formation, involved in hormone balance.

Potentiates the antioxidant function of Vitamin E. Helps produce

CoQ10, required in cells to make energy. Selenium is particularly

vulnerable to loss during food processing and the low amounts

found in fruit and vegetables make this especially important

for vegetarians to supplement. Considerable loss of selenium

occurs in the seminal fluid. There have been indications of

a connection between inadequate selenium and Downs Syndrome.

Deficiency symptoms: family history

of cancer, signs of premature ageing, cataracts, high blood

pressure, frequent infections.

Degenerative Diseases

Degenerative diseases have three main causes:

malnutrition, incomplete digestion and internal pollution. These

are reversed by nutrient enrichment, improved digestion, and


An excellent, varied diet will provide these nutrients, and

will supply the many factors that enable proper digestion and

help to detoxify the body. Eat fresh, locally-grown, in-season

organic produce. Eat slowly and chew your food well. A healthy,

nutritional diet includes the following:

    • Fruits: apple, banana, grapefruit, orange, kiwi, lemon, lime, mango, strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, grape, fig, pear, plum, peach, melon, plantain, papaya, pineapple, coconut


    • Vegetables: potato, tomato, carrot, onion, eggplant, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, avocado, asparagus, zucchini, scallion, parsley, spinach, kale, lettuce, chard, squash, radish, okra


    • Whole grains: kasha, basmati rice, wild rice, wheat, oats, barley, kamut, spelt, quinoa, rye, millet… Unsweetened whole grain bread and pasta.


    • Dairy: Whole milk, cheese, and butter.


    • Nuts: Unsalted roasted nuts peanuts, cashews, walnuts, pecans, hazelnuts, almonds, macadamia


    • Unsalted seeds: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, flax, psyllium


    • Nut and seed butters


    • Beans (cook well): kidney, pinto, navy, lentils, chickpeas, soybeans, black turtle beans, lima beans


    • Grain-fed eggs, cooked well


    • Fresh fish, especially salmon.


    • Plain non-iodized sea salt in moderation.


    • Extra-virgin olive oil in moderation.


  • Herbs and spices in moderation (use hot spices paringly): garlic, ginger, basil, dill, thyme, bay leaves, rosemary, oregano, sage, fennel, red pepper, black pepper, cumin, chili powder

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